Epilepsy is the fourth most common central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder) in which nerve cell movement in the brain becomes disturbed, causing seizures or periods of rare behavior, sensations and at times loss of consciousness.
Most of the people with suffering from Epilepsy have more than one form of seizure and might have other symptoms of neurological hitches as well.
At times, EEG testing, medical history, family history, and outlook are alike among a group of people with affected with epilepsy. In these conditions, their situation can be defined as a specific epilepsy syndrome.
The human brain is the source of human epilepsy. This seizure may affect any part of the human body, due to the electrical events that occur in the brain. Any person diagnosed with Epilepsy obviously contains one or more seizures that were not caused by some well-known and reversible medical condition like alcohol withdrawal or particularly low blood sugar.
The seizures in Epilepsy might be related to a brain damage or a family affinity, but often the source is completely unknown. The word "Epilepsy" does not specify anything about the source of the person's seizures or their sternness.
Nearly 1 in 26 people in the United States is suffering from a seizure disorder. Nearly 10 percent of persons might have a single unprovoked seizure. Conversely, a single seizure doesn't tell that you have epilepsy. At least two unprovoked seizures are usually required for an Epilepsy diagnosis.
Different Types of Seizures
1. Partial seizure
A partial seizure depicts that the epileptic activity took place in a particular part of the patient's brain. There are two kinds of partial seizures-
Simple Partial Seizure –
The patient stays conscious during this type of seizure. In most of the cases, the patient is also conscious of his/her surroundings, although the seizure is in the development stage.
Complex Partial Seizure –
Here, the patient's consciousness is lessened. Normally, the patient will not remember the seizure, and if he/she does, the remembrance of it will be ambiguous.
2. Generalized Seizure
A generalized seizure follows when both halves of the human brain have epileptic activity. The patient's consciousness will be lost while the seizure is in advancement stage.
3. Secondary Generalized Seizure
A secondary generalized seizure arises when the epileptic activity twitches as a partial seizure but then extends to both halves of the brain. As this progression happens, the patient loses his/her consciousness.
Symptoms of Epilepsy
The core symptoms of epilepsy are recurrent seizures. There are specific symptoms which may point out a person has epilepsy. If one or more of these symptoms are observed a medical examination is advised, particularly if they persist-
1) A seizure with no fever
2) Short spells of the clampdown or disordered memory.
3) Recurrent fainting spells, during which bladder control is lost. This is habitually followed by extreme wooziness.
4) For a small period of time, the person is unsympathetic to directives or questions.
5) The person becomes firm, suddenly, for no apparent reason
6) The person abruptly falls for no strong reason
7) Sudden spells of blinking without obvious stimuli
8) Sudden attacks of chewing, without any obvious reason
9) For a short time, the person seems astonished, and not capable of communicating
10) Repetitive movements that appear incorrect
11) The person becomes dreadful for no apparent reason, he/she might even panic or become irritated
12) Abnormal changes in senses, such as smell, touch, and sound
13) The hands, legs, or body jerk, in babies these will seem as a bunch of rapid jerking actions.
Treatments for Epilepsy
When the diagnosis of seizures or epilepsy is done, the doctor will then talk with the patient or the patient's relatives /family regarding the paramount treatment options of Epilepsy.
If a primary correctable brain disorder was causing the seizures, occasionally surgery might stop them. If the epilepsy is diagnosed the doctor will advise the top most seizure-preventing drugs or anti-epileptic drugs.
If the drugs are of no use, the next choice could be a surgery, a distinct diet or VNS (vagus nerve stimulation). Trigeminal nerve stimulation might also be operative, based on this study.
The doctor's intention is to avoid further seizures from happening, while at the same time evading side-effects so that the patient might lead a usual, active, and fruitful life
Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs)
The common AEDSs are taken orally. Based on the type of seizure the patient is having, the doctor will decide which drug should be prescribed. We are not supposed to react in the similar way to drugs as we do not have proper experience and may have dreadful side effects if we won’t use proper medication.
Some drugs efficiently stop further seizures from happening with one patient who has a particular type of epilepsy, while the other patient with the same kind will experience no profit from that identical drug. Even if the right drug is found, it could consume some time to find out the ideal dose.
AEDs are targeted at modifying the structures and procedures involved during the growth of a seizure; together with neurons, receptors, ion passages, and inhibitory or excitatory synapses. Inhibition is activated to stop or avoid seizure activity.
Children can use the same AEDs as grown-ups. They might be present as tablets, capsules, maple syrups or sprinklers. As in the case of handling adults, AEDs are aimed to prevent seizures.
Some are efficient with a restricted number of types of seizure, while others might treat a wider range. Doctors will effort to control seizures with only one drug, but some children might require taking more than one.
The accomplishment of childhood AEDs also considers to a great extent on defiance - following guidelines carefully.
List of the most usually prescribed Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AEDs).
Acetazolamide -product name Diamox
Acetazolamide altered release -product name Diamox SR
Carbamazepine - product name Tegretol
Carbamazepine modified release -brand name Tegretol Retard
Clobazam -product name Frisium
Clonazepam -product name Rivotril
Ethosuximide -product names Emeside – Zarontin
Gabapentin -product name Neurontin
Lacosamide -product name Vimpat
Lamotrigine -product name Lamictal
Levetiracetam -product name Keppra
Oxcarbazepine -product name Trileptal phenobarbital
Phenytoin -product name Epanutin
Pregabalin -product name Lyrica
Primidone -product name Mysoline
Sodium valproate -product names Epilim – Episenta